A Peltier element is used in combination with a TEC controller to control an object's temperature.

To be able to determine the cooling capacity (cooling power) as well as the losses of a Peltier element we assume a model of medium complexity of the Peltier element.

Peltier Element with heat flow and losses
The technical model of the Peltier element

PO = effective cooling capacity at the object [W]

PS = waste heat at the heat sink [W]

PP = cooling capacity of the Peltier effect [W]
I = current [A] -> IAVG
α = factor of the Peltier element
TO = temperature of the object side [K]

Pel = joule heat (ohmic power loss) [W]
I = current [A] -> IRMS
R = loss resistor

PdT = phonon thermal conductivity [W]

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